Pavitt (1984) found that a considerable fraction of invention by British firms was for in-house use. Shah (2000) found that the most commercially important equipment innovations in four sporting fields tended to be developed by individual users. Empirical studies also show that many users - from 10 percent to nearly 40 percent - engage in developing or modifying products. This has been documented in the case of specific types of industrial products and consumer products, and in large, multi-industry studies of process innovation in Canada and the Netherlands as well (table 1).
When taken together, the findings make it very clear that users are doing a lot of product development and product modification in many fields.
Zoho Workplace While Microsoft Office continues to dominate the world of office productivity suites, some users and businesses may be put off by the idea of monthly fees. Additionally, over the years a number of other companies have launched their own versions of office software, covering documents, spreadsheets, and email, to rival Microsoft's flagship service. Some of these alternatives come at a more competitive price - but even better, some are free to use. This will almost certainly be of interest to those consumers and businesses looking to minimize costs while retaining the ability to work with office files. However, not all office suites are created the same, and come with limitations, especially in free versions that come with a paid-for upgrade to unlock features.